13. aprile 2013 · Commenti disabilitati su Personality Disorders · Categorie:Senza categoria

An Ethological Approach and a New Explanatory Theory.


(The author is sorry for his imperfect use of English.

Personality Disorders, as they are called today, or “psychopathies” or “personalities altered long-term”, as were called up until some time ago, or “instinctive perversions” or “manias without delirium”, until the beginning of last century, or “neurosis of character”, according to the psychodynamic concepts, for example, of W. Reich and A. Adler, or “unbalanced personalities”, such as have named them J. P. Olie, C. Gay and F. Caroli, in Les  Déséquilibrées, Encyclopédie Médico-chirurgicale, Psychiatry, Paris, 37310, A10, p.1-7, are verbal expressions listed here as synonyms referring to the object of study of this work as corroborated by their own semeiotic polymorphism.

They relate to the aetiological and diagnostic problem of those individuals finding difficulties in their sociocultural integration although aren’t neurotics or psychotics or mentally delayed. This is the why in 1970 already Ackerman spoken about them as the “trash waste of the psychiatry” and Alessandro Selvini (in The diagnosis of psychopath personality in children: theoretical and critical findings, AP, I, No.1, 1979) noted that the concept of “psychopath” used in children has ideological connotations: imprisons the ways of thinking and acting deviant from social expectations and roles in naturalistic explanations stigmatizing and hiding an ideological nature.

From the philosophers Hippocrates (460-377 BC), Aristotle (fourth century BC) and Galen (130-200 AD) to Robert Burton (1577-1640), Ernst Kretschmer (1888-1964), Emile Kraepelin (1856-1926), Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), Karl Abraham (1877-1925), William Sheldon (1898-1977) and Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961), to name only a few greats old studious, they have made many attempts at definitions, descriptions and philosophical, sociological, somatic and psychological explanations without at least one had a definitive aetiological or/and a diagnostic value.

That is due, of course, to the multiple factors determining the disorganisation or organisation of the human personality and to the difficulties in finding “textbook cases” or a sufficient number of same cases in clinical practice to identify the common factors. It exceeded only the old controversy on environmental (nurture) and biological (nature) factors of human behaviour in the extent that it’s unanimously accepted the influence of both varying in each case.

The focus of neuroscience, genetics and biology has been moved from the genetic diversity (functional more to the survival of species) to the mechanisms of phenotypical development in the environment-gene interactions (functional more to the survival of individual); particularly, in the early stages of life by the influence of “caretakers”. The interactions gene-environmental factors are mediate obviously by the individual subjective experience which in turn is linked to whole personality or possible numerous its characteristics and cause in reality that you haven’t two individuals with personality disorder exactly alike! More is increased the genotypic diversity and more are the chances that a specie survives; more the mechanisms of phenotypical development are flexible and more are the chances that an individual is suitable to the environment and he survives. According to A. J. Semeroff (in “Development and psychopathology”, Turin, Boringhieri, 1991), the fitting of an individual depends on the interaction between genotype (specific biological structure), phenotype (personality characteristics) and ecotype (sociocultural model of behaviour in the context where he is living). The ecotype acts part. on human phenotypes, thanks to the great variability or flexibility or plasticity functional and modular of their brain. The activity of brain of females and children is more adaptable to the environmental stimuli than that of adult males. The injuries in certain areas of it can be even offset in part by other vicarious, part. in children. This justifies a contextual approach to the study of human behavior, in particularly, and of all living beings, in general.

Already Kurt Schneider (1887-1967) has stressed the importance of individual-society interactions and noted the “psychopaths” have abnormal personality to the extent “they suffer and make suffer others”.

However there are individuals who by the action of genetic factors are less subject to the influences of ecotype; i.e., they have the mechanisms of phenotypic development tighter. Among these are the individuals with personality disorders, cognitive deficit or psychosis. The neurotics are more “plastics” and susceptible to the influence of the environmental factors. In other words, in human beings the constitutional factors contribute less than in animals to determine the behaviour, except in those three first personality anomalies. All the four are dysfunctional at the best and overall satisfaction of individual survival needs, even the neurotics, for the inadequacy of mechanisms of adaptation or resilience to the environment pressures: a lack of strength, in the neurotics, and an excess, in the others. All are influenced by the environmental factors.

Doctor Cammarata Salvatore speak here about resilience as well as adaptation to environmental pressures, because the functional normality don’t must be confused with that statistic nor with a blinded adaptation to the common ways of thinking and acting. (1)

Once was running between the psychiatrists this maxim: “You can not well understand the psychiatry if you aren’t an expert on depression”, because of its various clinical manifestations may be confused with the symptoms of other mental illness. Paraphrasing it we can say: “You can’t well understand the clinic psychology if you are not an expert on personality disorders”, because you can wrongly attribute to environmental factors disturbed and disturbing behaviours having biogenetic origins.

D.r Cammarata believes that genetic, biology, neurophysiology, endocrinology, clinical, cognitive and comparative psychology (within the limits of applicability of animal operating models at the humans), psychoanalysis, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and law can help in order to better understand that problem. He hopes to make a contribution to this aim, to overcome the symptomatic-descriptive approach to the psychiatry of Kretschmer and Kraepelin and even that statistical-descriptive of American Psychiatric Association (A.P.A.), to arrive at a differential diagnosis based also on the aetiology, not only on the observable behaviour, and at more effective treatments. “The personality disorders remains difficult to treat until you don’t understand the aetiology and pathogenesis”, wrote J. M. Oldham, A. E. Skodol and D. S. Bender in their “Treatise on the personality disorders”, published by Cortina, Milan, Italy, in 2008 (O.S.B.), page. 193.

The types, the clinical and about-clinical characteristics, the psychiatric conditions, the social and psychological evolutions and complications, the causal hypothesis advanced and the theories developed you can read about on many manuals of psychiatry and even on the Statistical Manuals of Mental Disorders published by A.P.A. suffers too the descriptive methods. An enlargement of the observation to other institutional and professional contexts, different from those psychiatrics, can extend the types and diversify the points of view, to better understand the phenomenon. For example, rarely the “Opposers-provocateurs” adults are examined in a psychiatric clinic because their closure in the communication or their greater ability to dialogue by which they can mask to other people their “unbalanced personality”. The same can be applied to the “Exploiters” and to “Hypersexual” who often, at least in the West where the ideology of “super-astute” and the sexual liberation of moral customs are widespread, are beyond the clinical observation. On the other hand, it’s very likely the “Hyposexual” ask help and “Hypoparental” are envied by courts for minors, for investigations and reports, at least in Italy, more at Familial Advice Bureau, where psychologists work, than at the psychiatric clinics.

The author hopes to give a contribution to that aim and to the Human Cinical Ethology, having worked as psychologist in public and private schools, prisons for adults and educational institutions for children, psychological and psychiatrics services, familial advice bureaus, general hospitals and, as a collaborator, even in the Criminal Anthropology at the University of Palermo. This allowed and allow him to analyze the about said problem from different points of view: practical and theoretical, social and legal, psychiatric and psychological, for diagnosis, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation.

The researches on personality disorders did not given, so far, unequivocal information about the genetic inheritance, severity, difference between them and between them and mental disorders. Some indications are arising from those about the temperamental characteristics inheriting in emotional, attentive, social and spontaneous motor responses. For a more modern and interesting research about endophenotypes in Biological Psychiatry, made by Prof. Jean-Baptiste Pingault and Coll., you can read in Internet: A New Approach of Personality and Psychiatric Disorders: A Short Version of the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales.

On the other hand, there isn’t “neutral”, “objective”, “no-theoretic” researches, free from political, cultural or commercial influences. Even the descriptions of observable behaviour, even if they are more objective indices, for measurement of personality, can mislead the research for explanations and be “phenomenal” if you don’t take account of possible aetiological factors relying on diagnostic, preventive, therapeutic and rehabilitative purpose and theoretical explanations. They are confined to the “what” and not go to the “why”.

The 10 types proposed by A.P.A. in D.S.M.-IV T.R. are the result of the agreement among many clinicians and are the most known and shared. But do not cover the range of the many possible you can found in reality. This is evidenced through the frequent use of the diagnosis “Disorder Not Otherwise Specified” (N.O.S.) by the psychiatrists.

Therefore, the author, unlike the “scientifically correct” of his time and against the supposed objectivity guaranteed only by the descriptions, studied 26 prototypes of u. pp. and 4 still being studied divided into clusters, depending on assumed common aetiological factor. They were identified by psychoclinical observations and their factors were suggest through inferences.

Of course, the comments, the descriptions and the explanatory psychological assumptions are not “evidences”. Those requires supportive observations made with other types of investigation, f. ex., chemical or neurological. But they don’t harm human thought! Indeed, they can perform the function to cause a reflection or encourage the researches. This abstract wants only suggest a guideline of research different from those already used with poor results. References to DD.SS.MM of A.P.A. are dictated here because they are now part of the history of psychiatry and part. because they are a sort of international psychiatric language that promote the communication and research between the operators from around the world.

Moreover the identification and diversification of the syndromes should not be taxonomic, based on the number and duration of the symptoms, nor, even less, depending on issues of terminology. It is not the dialectic, bureaucratic or other type of cataloguing research meeting the criteria of rationality of conceptual or practical utility can solve the problem, because it does not give the guarantee of correspondence to reality. One may not, with certainty, diagnose an illness not even “ex-adjuvantibus”, because sometimes the disorders respond positively even to treatments which he don’t knows the action or based on erroneous theory of reality!

The conceptualizations are important for the representation and understanding of reality, for communication and the development of research, science and of human thought. But if you end up with a debates on the terminology or on bureaucracy or on otherwise, you risk falling into verbalisms or formalisms or “flee” into the intellectualisations more useful to legitimize particular roles or interests than solve the clinic and practical problems. This is the why the author of this work believes that a “nomothetic” diagnosis following the identification of one or more of the criteria having weights determining or qualifying, compared to others, the main characteristics of a nuisance or an inconvenience or a personality disorder and allows you to identify the applicable law to one or most individuals (functional at an explanatory model) is more useful than a “polithetic” diagnosis based on a number-threshold of criteria to be met with statistical methods and giving equal significance or weight to the symptoms. In fact these can have different weights and meanings, not to be equally qualified and be functional to a descriptive model of diagnosis; not to a functional one.

The following proposed revision of the concept of personality disorders comes from the trying for help to identify those factors or those states having a mainly constitutional origins, for diversify among them and from those having a mainly environmental origins or rather co-origins, functional to an aetiological diagnosis, as well as the behavioural styles.

The history of the studies of personality has always evolved from the “psychology of the traits” (as, for example, that of G. Allport) to that of the “states” (as, for example, that of R. R. Holt) (2). Recently even systemic psychologists who historically based their theories and practice on models, other than the individual “internal”, have begun to see the importance of the basic personality or traits of it in determining human relationships. Between these studious, for example, even Mara Selvini Palazzoli(www.scuolamaraselvini.it/web/index.php?option=com_content&task= vieu&wid=678Itemid=110).

In support of the thesis about constitutional factors generating or co-generating personality disorders is: (A) some individuals, even when are in absence of environmental “stressors”, feel a rising internal tension leading them to seek or create inter-personal conditions for “free” their own instinctive impulses and download the psychophysical tension related to them. For example, the “Violent hyperemotionals”, after a possible initial period of good relationships with other people, instinctively or voluntarily, often in a subtle way, tend to attack trough provocations until the other people react. They create so the “excuse” to be able to counter-react, liberate their aggressive pulses continuously self-regenerating and download the related inner tension. The “Hyperanxious” tend continuously to lead the discussions about what worry them, for liberate their anxiety and download the related their tension, to seek protections or assurances or to share the anxiety with other people for auto-calming. Conflicts arise later, when other people get tired of this. They accompany these behavioral manifestations in various neurophysiological disorders typical of fears. Probably they unintentionally base their individual and specie survival mainly on the defense strategy of perpetual alarm which in turn is due to the hyperactivity of limbic structures. In the efficient CC. NN. SS. the neurosensory system keeps tracks from the outside and send them automatically to the cortex that processes them according to previous experiences and learning. If it sees them as dangers the limbic system activates physiological and emotional (fear) processes for implement attack or escape behaviors. This system has enabled our ancestors to be alert to the dangers and survive and us to exist today. In the CC. NN. SS. of “Hyperanxious” the limbic system or part of it is constantly active, except brief periods of calm, and continuously activate the physiological processes related to fears and influence in alarmist ways even the perceptions of the cortex which  usually tends to implement escape and avoidance behaviors of the perceived dangers even though it rationally can recognize the absurdity! The “Opponents-Provocateurs” tend to seek the real motives or to set the discussion so they can argue, criticize or challenge with the people having powers or assets; resist or disobey passively to their roles or proposals; disqualify or desecrate them or stir up the people against, in order to replace them or, at least, disengaging themselves from any subjection and duty and to do their personal advantage. The other people, sooner or later, react if do not take the feelings of inferiority or guilt and if don’t abandon in their favour. They create so conflicts most often in terms of ideas and sometimes on physical plane. In so doing, they are next to further criticism towards them, don’t miss any opportunity to further attacks, for psychologically annihilate them definitively, to expropriate their assets or power in the relation or disengaging themselves from any obligation or duty and may meet freely their whims. The “Profiteers” are trying “preys”: people in need of luck, health, affection, solidarity, electoral backing, etc. On surface they show themselves “friends”, “able to help”, “selfless”, “competent”, flattery them or speak bad of their rivals or promise what those wish and they can identify with great skill. In the fact they acting solely for the purpose of win their hearts, to reap the benefits and meet the own wishes. The interpersonal conflicts can arise later with the people who will discover to be defrauded or deceived.  The “Hiper.dependents” perform to others their “state of abandon and need”, to attract their attention, groped to obtain their “cares” and meet their needs of child dependency. The C.N.S. of the mostly of them is likely characterized by a structure whose stage of neurological maturation is comparable to the children development of normal (well balanced) CC. NN. SS. of human and animal individuals. The childhood is a phase of maturation of almost all living beings, especially those belonging to the upper steps of the Phylogenetic Scale and base the individual and specie survival on the dependence from individuals, usually adults, perceived as capable of providing protection.

Only by spending long time with these individuals, for example, in a prison or in a re-education institution or in others communities, not in the psychiatric service, you may notice these steps from the interpersonal quiet relationships to that conflicting.

(B) Another support for the possible influences of constitutional factors on some personality disorders you can found in the individuals prone to feeling guilty, because of the reproaches of adults, part. of the parents, and prone to inhibit their pulses voluntarily, in way and to the extent they can, only as long as children. From the adolescence onwards they are prone to delegate to other people the blame and responsibility of their social conflicts and, as adults, you can find reasonableness in them only in conditions of emotional calm. In the situations of excitement of Central Nervous System (C.N.S.), due to “eu-” or “di-stress”, the instinctive tendencies are prevalent in them. This contradicts the classic causal psychoanalytic explanations of the “psychopathy” as due to a shortage of “Super-Ego”, because, if they corresponded to reality, it should happen the opposed: the children “psychopaths” should be less inhibited and the adults be more!

(C) Another strength support to the thesis here argued, about the influence of factors having constitutional origins in some personality disorders, is arising from the “Unbalanced” feel, their thoughts, feelings and actions in a natural, self-harmonic and legitimate way unlike the Neurotic and like the Psychotic and the Delayed. Consequently, they feel the impediments and restrictions or obligations having environmental origins as “unfair restrictions or obligations on their rights or freedom” or “wrong” or “violence” or “claims” or “oppressions” or “neglect” on the part of people towards them, not fully aware of their natural tendencies and responsibilities. That is the why they feel themselves entitled or even reinforced to continue feel, think and act on their own way, to not adapt themselves to the demands of moral or social rules and roles at the basis of the social restrictions or obligations and to continue be driven by their inner impulses pushing towards the satisfaction of the underlying needs or to be motivated by them.

(D)Yet. The typical behavioural tendencies of “constitutional unbalanced personalities” become more evident when, face to environmental stressors, their ability to inhibit voluntarily (by cortex) the instinctive impulses decrease like others. The “Unbalanced” try, usually and initially, to restrain them, according to the roles of co-existence expected in the civil sociocultural environment. But their inner tension increases, abruptly or gradually, until they think about: “Now stop. It come what may, I do/say what I want/think!”. In fact, a moment before they come to think so, the action has already started, automatically and impulsively, and their psyche (the cortex), in preparation or subsequent justifications of the actions against the sociocultural norms, usually, develops rationalisations.

(E) The psychiatrists long time have noticed the characteristics of “psychopaths” tend to dampen after middle age. To the opposite the psychic disorders caused by pathological factors usually over time worsen. Probably it’s due to the biological changes (for example, in the production of hormones or in neurological conditions) simultaneous with the decline, typical in that age, of instinctive pulses.

(F) When the hyperdeveloped pulses are stimulated by environmental external (situational or cultural) or internal (needs) factors, usually, after any initial attempts at voluntary and rational self-control on the part of “Unbalanced”, finally the pulses invades the psychic sphere (emotions and thoughts) until to prevail on the attempting to inhibition it by the cortex (the influence of cortical activity by the emotions and instincts is most evident in the oneiric activity), corrupt and subservient also it and its resulting activities to the instinctual purposes. If the cortex initially works in a rational and voluntary way, later it begins to operate, abruptly or gradually, in a less volunteers and rational way, influenced by those features. Only when any external or internal stimuli begin will less it will turn gradually regain voluntary and rational control of the feelings, thoughts and behaviours. H. Flavigny (in De la notion de psychopathie, Rev. Neuropsychiatr. Infant., 1977, 25, 1, pp. 19-75) has noted that the “psychopaths” are more in a state of need than desire and their needs are pressing and necessitate to be satisfied immediately. This implies a more intolerance of the frustration related to those needs.

The hyperdevelopment, as well as the effects listed above, it has other consequences. These include: (G) a greater sensitivity and impatience and spontaneous responsiveness to factors stimulating or frustrating the interested features; (H) a higher or more frequent spontaneous tendency to satisfy needs related to hyperdeveloped biological functions of survival resulting in a more frequent and intense condition of dissatisfaction compared to other; (I) a more great or frequent tendency to satisfy such needs in a selfish (selfishness), manipulative (manipulation) or illegal (illegality) way; (L) the tendency to exceed in behaviours related to hyperdeveloped biological function of survival and, on the contrary, to lack in those related to “hypo-“; (M) the strength of the “hyper-“ biological function of survival “blinds” or reduces the strength of the sense of respect and duties towards other people, of their rights and expectations towards them (egocentrism) until (N) does not realize other people can not long endure their behaviour and, sooner or later, they will react; (O) the tendency to develop feelings of being neglected or mistreated or persecuted by other people, part. by those with whom they live, face to the obstacles that life has, more or less, for all and the believe that the blame is the other people (moving out of the “locus” of control). These feelings, thoughts and behaviours create a more vicious circles of reactions and counter-reactions by other people and contribute to further conflict with them or law. (P) The weakness or strength of pulses, as above described, tend to influence the feelings, thinking, actions and reactions to external and internal stimuli until to auto-impose on the volunteer and rational self-control and to contribute to forming the personality and the sense of identity. In the twenties P. Guillaume noted the instincts contribute to forming the personality and human sense of identity and extended the idea of “instinct of preservation”, in directly way related to the functions of survival, to the “instinct of social statement”, linked them in indirect way. A sort of self-respect which, if it’s diverted or accentuated, results in selfishness or in a perversion. You can observe it part. in those societies where there is a weakness of legal or moral rules. In the personality disorders due to poor-educational or sub-cultural factors are the deviant roles learned to forming the sense of the personality and identity, right and duty. The author of tihs work pointed out only even the cultures are developing according to the survival of the people making their own in place.

Those are the why in March 08 2005 the United Sections of Italian Court of Cassation has ruled the “personality disorders” or “psychopaths” can be specific and autonomous causes of exclusion or reduction of capacity of willing and understanding, therefore of attribution, under Articles. 88 and 89 of the Penal Code. This is true if and insofar as there is a connection between committed offences or crimes and personality of offenders, which must be characterized by decreased ability of self-control and emotional and behavioural discernment of negative values of moral, social or legal behaviour view of the meanings and the resulting punishments social. Although they aren’t “diseases” (psychic disorders), these disorders are, also in a transitional way and “latu sensu”, “mental illness” affecting on the ability to understand and to willing in whole or in part.

Most of those who break the rules and go in prison are sentenced because of they having violated laws against violent behaviour. In such cases it is easy for you to associate those “compelling impulses”, that the “unbalanced personalities” feel arising from inside, with biological functions of survival aggressiveness (think, i. e., on the fight, injury, robbery, threats, extortion, murder crimes) or hunger (theft, burglary and several other utilitarian crimes) or sex (rape, murder of passion) or domain (elimination of natural enemies in the fight mafia to control the territories; fraudulent removal of competitors, to control the economic or the financial markets; the elimination or defamatory or libellous smear of colleagues working in the competition, to gain more customers or attract the best jobs or work assignments or simply to be more clever; the elimination of opponents in competitive sports by bribery of referees or opponents, to win championships; etc.). Of course it does not means that all criminals have “unbalanced personalities” nor that all “unbalanced personalities” become criminals, but that some of them like “Exploiters”, “Opponents-Provocateurs”, “Narcissistics” and “Violents” are more prone than others to become ones. The first and the last are probably mostly of individuals who have genetically inherited from their parents and ancestors a C.N.S. structure of those animals that base on the predation their instinctive strategy of individual and, indirectly, of their specie survival. The C.N.S. of “Opponents-Provocateurs” instead is likely cheracterized by a structure whose stage of neurological maturation is comparable to the adolescent development of normal (well balanced) CC. NN. SS. and tends to produce behaviors comparable to those of young animals that instinctvely tend to undetermine the elderly rulers in order to ensure the pack and, indirectly, the specie survival by changing the old individuals with younger and stronger individuals.

We all have automatic biological functions regulated by the nervous-endocrine system such as more or less developed affecting our feelings, thoughts and behaviours and with whom our reason has to deal by the cortex. In 1965 was demonstrated through the Rorschach Test the influence exerted by the needs even on the perceptions (Riccobono Terrana L. and Di Fiore E. – Controls experimental influences around the needs of the perceptual phenomenon – Proceedings of the XV Congress of Italian Psychologists, Turin, 1965).

Here we talk about the hyperdeveloped biological functions of survival with a lower threshold of stimulation more easily go beyond the voluntary and rational control and about those hypo- with a higher threshold less likely can be stimulated voluntary, both creating imbalances in the personality development and consequent social maladjustment

Of course, the potential development of unbalanced personality is genetically inherited. But also the potential “normal” development can be distort part. by “unbalanced” parents that inhibit or stimulate in excess the biological functions of survival of their children. “Mutatis mutandis” in the same way can be corrected the potential unbalanced development. That is, if the potential development is genetically inherited its implementation can be facilitated or impeded by the environmental factors.

Also, according to other authors such as, for example, A. T. Beck and A. Freeman (“Cognitive therapy of personality disorders”, published in Italy by Skinner in 1993), it’s possible to make distinctive profiles of these disorders on the basis of typical behavioural, emotional and cognitive traits hyper- compared to others hypodeveloped. Here the concepts “hyper-” and “hypo-” are used with different meanings. For example, the “Dependents” play a little business for themselves, surely, according to the social roles expected at least in Western Culture and the two Authors consider them “hypodeveloped”. Instead the author of this work consider them “hyperdeveloped”, because of the predominance in them of instinctive survival strategy dependence on other people (in  psychoanalytic terminology: “nourishers”) who actively they seek to identify in their environment and invest in that role. Moreover, the two Authors about said have attributed a great importance to the aetiological cognitive patterns and ways of developing information. In fact the cognitive patterns and ways of thinking influence the behaviour and even some bodily functions. Part. the human brain has the capacity to create new nerve and it’s the basis of the effects of certain forms of learning, psychotherapy, rehabilitation of psychiatric rehabilitation and neurological too. But the cognitive patterns and ways of thinking are influenced even by biological, organic or constitutional, factors; particularly these neuroendocrinological.

The personality disorders can be caused even by other factors, for example, sub-cultural or poor-educational. The two latter are due, of course, to learned roles and diversifying than “constitutionals” and “organic” because the above characteristic: (A) in calm situations they don’t mount automatically inner tension; (C) their self-harmony is depending on whether or not their natural tendencies are well corresponding to the socio-cultural roles learned; (D) they don’t grope inhibit their pulses, but rather that they voluntarily grope to give them a force to adapt their behaviour to the expected social deviants roles;  (E) on the middle-age there’s no damping of the personality characteristics, but there’s an accentuation of the adaptation to the environmental roles; (F) there are voluntary and conscious gropes to adequate the behaviour with the deviant roles learned rather than gropes rationally to inhibit the strength of the instinctive tendency; (G) the responsiveness to environmental frustrations is not automatic, but mediated by the reflection arising from the learned roles; (I, L, M, N and O) so even the satisfaction of the biological functions of survival, the sense of the own duty, of the rights and of the expectations of other people and the selfish behavior.

All the constitutional factors realize them part. via nervous pulses and hormones put into circulation. Usually they are found similar among family members or in whole genealogical branches. Even because this reason the author suggests a genetic inheritance primary as well as a secondary psychological.

The hyper- or hypodeveloped biological functions of survival reminiscent some aspects of the depressive or manic disorders in mood. But the latter usually cover all or many of vital functions; the first cover only one or a few related to the biological functions of survival hyper- or hypodeveloped.

In the personality disorders “hyper-“ the tendencies to feel, think and act recall instinctive strategies of survival typical of different breeds of animals: subduing or dominance, attack or flight, social life or autonomy, etc. Therefore the author, in an ethological perspective, assumes one or few biological functions of survival, integrated in a defective or excessive development of instinctive strategies of survival, can be inherited from ancestors and we can observe the stemming characteristic external unbalanced personality development. The instinctive strategies of survival of animals are directed part. to physical survival; those of humans adult civilized part. to the social statement as a form of indirect survival.

Even those with organic origins cause imbalances in the formation of personality and are due to the loss of ability to auto-inhibit the impulses voluntary and rationally, for example, because of injuries to the frontal lobes or atherosclerosis or dementia.

Both “organic” and “constitutional” make more rigid the phenotypic development and less effective the psychotherapies and the psychotropic drugs can only in part modify the capacity to auto-control, through the reasoning or the modification of expression of genotype. Those due to sub-cultural or poor-educational factors are however more changeable by reasoning and part. in various social or/and cultural environment. The author of this work points out, for example, none of the detainees on whom he reported monitoring to the court for adults or minors, so willing to grant benefits alternative to prison, transgressed the received deliveries. He selected only those who had dealings with their no deviant relatives or with prison guards or with ideal values or in dystonia (because feelings of guilt, altruism, affections, acceptance of part. roles in jail or because the adherence to moral values) with their past antisocial conduct, because of they were convicted and he analyzed along with help of observation and projective tests. Certainly he don’t selected them only because they stated that “they was repented” or have a “good intention for the future” or denied or diminished their past responsibilities if this, for example, was in dystonia with an antisocial temperament like the opponent or aggressive or provocative or narcissist!

The human biological functions of survival, such as the animals, are functional, primarily, to the survival of the individual, secondly, to the group which he belongs (for example, family, friends, political, economic or otherwise faction) and, finally, to the human species. The great variety of personalities, including the “unbalanced”, in fact is functional to survival of the human specie, because it is more likely at least a part of individuals adapt themselves to continually changing environmental conditions of life, survive and with them the specie. The retention by survivors of genotypes different from phenotypes gives the opportunity to put on the world children with phenotypic characteristics different from each other and to extend further the possibility of survival of the species face to new possible environmental changes. By extension of the concept, could be said that the variety of living species on Earth is functional to the continuation of the life.

The approach given here to attempt to diversify and to explain the aetiology of some personality disorders as “constitutionals” refers to a model of a more concrete (biopsychogenetics) and less abstract (sociopsychogenetics) Man. The author of this work does not shares the American behaviourist and European sociologist explanations of all the personality disorders, widespread particularly in sixties and seventies. He shares with A. Lowen (Leader of Bioenergetic School) the idea of a “continuum” between body and psyche in which the former can have the primacy in some cases almost; not the exclusive, according to the idea of Sir F. Galton and C. Darwin expressed at the end of nineteenth century. He shares with the Freudian psychoanalysis the idea on animal features, those instinctual (“Es”) present in the Humans, plays an important role in determining feelings, thoughts and behaviours and in forming the personality and a great work is required at the rational features Ego e Super-Ego (i. e., approximately the cortex) in trying to master them. He shares part. the idea of Psychologists of the Ego on the lack of rational control of the instincts and affections is on the basis of personality disorders. He not shares the psychoanalytic aetiology of “oral”, “anal”, “phallic”, “schizoid” and “masochistic” characters; rather, that of Henry Ey, leader of French “Organdynamic Psychiatry”. According to him, the “psychopaths” are individuals who, because of their unusual characteristics of personality, because of individual features accentuated at the expense of others, their rigidity, etc. are hardly adaptable to human relationships and social issues and are prepared to their mental disorders: hysteria, paranoia, schizoid, mania, obsessive-compulsive, etc.

The author of this work suggests that the biogenetic hyper- or hypodeveloped factors co-organize the personality together with the normal- and the environmental issues. His concept is similar to that psychoanalytic according to genetic factors trigger individual psychologies and consolidate through the live, rather than with that according to the attempts to resolve conflicts arising from experiences of life, secondary to the profit that have, it crystallize in psychic structures and characterize the personality through the life in ways rigidly stable and socially inappropriate and also to account for any symptoms.

In 1912 G. Dupré (01-03-1817/10-01-1882) tried to overcome this concept and spoke of “potential imbalance in the constitutional”. He brought attention to the balance and the harmony should have a “normal” and lacks to the “psychopaths”. Among the 8 types of “constitutional psychopathic” he suggested there is the “imbalance of the instincts” (“conservation”, “generation” and “socialization”). With him the concept of “imbalance” led to those of no-amendability and inevitability. In the reality it’s a predisposition rather than a predestination. In fact, compared to animals, the humans have more ability to learning and inhibition, to control and guidance their instincts. The idea has also evoked the “disorder” of personality compared to an average socio-cultural model. Here the latter term is reserved for the “Schizothimics”. We talk here about organizations having particular characteristics of personality or “fingerprints” dysfunctional to the optimal sociocultural integration and harmonious satisfaction of instinctive survival needs. Not always it resulting in “chaos” in personality or mental disorder. The same concept of “temperament” which they refer derives from the Latin “temperamentum”  (according to Pliny, “harmonious combination of parts”). Translated into the language concerning this topic, it is attributable to one or more tendencies predominates in a personality and forming it; probably, according to a predominant instnctive strategy of survival. From this point of view, also masochists, pederasts, sadists and others deviants could be considered “unbalanced personality”.

The “normal-” or “balanced-development” of biological functions of survival, generally, promotes the adaptation and survival; the hyper- and hypo-, both of the “hardware” and “software”, in one or more biological functions of survival, hamper it, because of the related behavioural pulses, emotions and thoughts are less rationally controlled or stimulated voluntarily (by the cortex), less editable and manageable even through teaching or psychological methods, because rely part. on the cortex activity which inevitably is even conditioned or subjected to the instinctual purposes. Even the psychopharmacology methods aren’t very useful until there is no mental disorder or disease to be treated. Unless, it occurs an imbalance lead to a mental disorder such as f. ex. an “anxious” going into a G.A.D. or a “paranoid” going into a delusions of persecution. All “hyper-“ and “hypo-” biological function of survival generally hinder the full survival, because of the difficulties to coordinate thoughts, emotions and pulses, willingly and rationally and because of the general psychological immaturity of “Unbalanced” due also to their imbalanced development.

The instincts shares the human beings to animals part. to these belonging to higher steps of Phylogenetic Scale. The methods of treating them are diverse, because human beings learn more from experience. But even between the animals of the same species there are differences in behaviour. For example, certain Caribbean herons, watching for fish to come to the surface to eat bread crumb falls in water, have learned to obtain others and to use them as bait to attract fishes to the surface instead how do other herons wait they emerge spontaneously and eating. This means are no two animals exactly the same as are no two individuals as are no two “unbalanced personalities”. Even the “unbalanced personalities” are unrepeatable and unique and diversifying between themselves, depending on the manner and extent to which biological functions of survival characterize them, on the others biological functions of survival which they are aggregated and on the influence exerted by environmental factors. But they diversifying less than the “normal-developed”, because of the most decisive influence of hyper- or hypodevelopment of some biological funcions of survival and (Q) because of the related spontaneous behavioral tendencies to act (“acting out”) or lack of acting, which cause problems of environmental fitting, because of a lower or higher threshold of stimulation or tolerance of frustration of related needs. In the “unbalanced personalities” due to environmental factors, however, the action is mediated more by learning (cortex). (R) In the “organic” and “constitutional” there are also problems of dysyncrony, dyspraxia and dysagnos due to constitutional or organic factors; perhaps, to the instinctive impulses tendency that influence the assessments of situations prevailing on or anticipating the voluntary decisions. (S) Because of all these features, it follows instability of relationships, sex and employment and (T) of the mood, (U) interpersonal conflicts on adjusting to the sociocultural norms and (V) suffering for them and for the other individuals involved in the relations due to difficulties to subduing the impulses to the civil sociocultural rules and roles. (W) In the biological functions of survival “hypo-“, compared to the sociocultural expectations, there’s a greater nervous-physiological, emotional, cognitive and behavioral stability arising from a higher threshold for stimulation. (X) Both the “hyper-“ and “hypo-“ involve problems of social fitting and efficiency in the societies more civilized, due to the greater resistance offered by the b. ff. s. to environmental factors, compared to the “normal-“. (Y) The “hyper-“ are generally typical of unreliable individuals from which it is to be expected mainly illegal, selfish, manipulator or self-centred behaviors.

Problems of dyspraxia, dysyncrony and dysagnos eventually present in the “environmental” (R) are due to other organic factors, while the eventually stability/instability of mood and relations, the conflict and suffering/satisfaction relations with people (S, T, U, V, W, X) can be due to several other factors (f. ex., sociocultural influences, mental disorders, etc.). (Y) The conduct of “environmental” is expected on the basis of deviant rules and roles learned unlike the “constitutional” and “organic”.

This constitutionalist design of the explicative hypothesis of some “personality disorders” almost can not like the people, because of their illusion that all they do is the result of their willingness and, perhaps, even some psychologists, because of their “mindset” according to all behaviors are attributed only to psychic factors. The combination of human beings to animals can be blamed by well-meaning broadsheets, some idealists and the moralists, because of ideological reasons (“It’s offensive!”). Certainly, it not will like the religious and those philosophers to whom this proposed vision of Man will appear pessimistic and even those who recognize them-selves in the descriptions! But the human nature has also unpleasant aspects. The instincts are active in us and our reason must come to terms with them!

The research about the genome have concluded between humans and animals have similar genetic diversity minimal: only 1,6%. The previous cytological research has found the human body is varied from 200 types of cells about which you found very similar in other mammals and even in birds and snakes and almost all contain the same genetic information. Between humans and animals, part. those belonging to higher steps of Phylogenetic Scale, there are several quantitative differences (i.e., intelligence, physical force or sensitivity) rather than qualitative.


At this point the author add to the discussion of the topic a proper understanding of the written requests a partial revision of the concepts of “personality” or “character disorders” or “psychopaths” or “psychopathic deviations” and “neurosis”, usually exposed in the psychological and psychiatric literature. In this work the areas investigated are the observable behaviors (part. the interpersonal relations), the emotions (as responses to internal states or environmental stimuli) and the thoughts (knowledge). The levels of description are, first, the observable behaviour, second, the psychological inferences, and, third, an aetiological hypothesis. The descriptors are among those used usually in clinical psychology. The explanatory are elaborations of the original. The approach to the problem is, primarily, analytical and, secondly, theoretical. The vision is complex. In psychiatric literature the criteria having the part predominant in diversifying, identifying and describing personality disorders include the difficulties in the interpersonal relations, considered basically dysfunctional to social inclusion. You could say that individuals with personality disorders have difficult in respond positively to the expected social roles and rules (according to some social North-American theories) or, to cite the philosopher John Searle, to accept the roles that the community delivers. These criteria are important, because it’s not possible to consider a behavior or a personality abstractly from the context in which it is observed. Even the study on the temperament isn’t proper if it isn’t done in a context. But these criteria alone aren’t sufficient to identify the “unbalanced personalities”, diversify inter them and from the mental disorders and understand them, because as we have mentioned before, it do not distinguish the aetiology (organic, constitutional or environmental) and do not indicate the sub-sequent approach.

Even according to the D.S.M. IV TR the personality disorders are traits unsuitable because the rigidity, characterizing them and cause of subjective discomfort and significant impairment of social functioning on work or both. The traits are significantly deviant from expected social roles (i. e., the standard statistics) and deviation occurs in the following areas: control of impulses, cognitive ability, affectivity, relations with other people and need for gratification. The deviation is stable, persistent from early adulthood or adolescence and is pervasive; i. e., occurs in a wide range of situations, not in specific situations “triggers” or in response to particular stimuli.

O. S. B. argue instead a conception of personality disorders as “stable patterns of emotion thought, motivation and behaviour activated in particular circumstances” (p. 25) and think on personality disorders as “exaggerations of personality styles not pathological, arising from a predisposing temperament associated with stressful circumstances unsuitable to the environment” (p. 19). Their concept is dynamic (as characterized by the interaction between internal and external factors) and flexible (as characterized by processes activated in specific circumstances). Even the author of this work, as already written before, knows if all goes as, when, where and with whom the “unbalanced personalities” wish (absence of internal or external “stressors”) they usually don’t enter in tension or conflict with other people. Therefore the “constitutional hyperdeveloped” auto-generate inner tension and seek or create spontaneously environmental conditions for it “downloading” even in the absence of external “stressors”. Except in most serious cases and in cases in which the biological function of survival hypodeveloped is the affectivity it should be added even the “unbalance personalities” would like have good relations with people, part. at the stages when they can reflect calmly. But the contextual difficulties of “Hyperdeveloped” to tolerate the frustrations of their needs and to self-manage their impulses and the difficulties of “Hypo-” to support the sociocultural standards expected from them, make this very difficult. In order to not suffer and to establish good social relationships, the events should take place always when, where, how and with whom they want! That, of course, is very unlikely.

In the other hands, the hyperdeveloped functions can facilitate the fitting in specific environments. You can think on the financiers, bankers or managers with an obsessive personality who devote most of their time and psychophysical energy to do accounts, track data, allocate resources, monitor performance, plan the production of profits and that can give the best of themselves in the workplace, but thay are inadequate to the emotional relationships. It’s likely they have instinctive hyperdeveloped impulses of survival. The normal b. tt. to accumulate, order and control the environment can be based on the instinctive strategy of survival of optimizing the resources. It can be adaptive and functional for survival even in non-working environment if is not excessive, because it allows to track the management of the own resources and to maximize their use for not “lacking” in cases of need. Even many animals control their territory to the fundamental purpose of optimizing the resources available to them, reorder it according to their needs for survival or aside resources to use in periods of lean. Proverbial are bees and ants. Even beavers and other animals are prone to put in order their territory and accumulate possession functionally to survival. For example the squirrel pick mushrooms and dry them between branch to keep. Even in the human being it could be a biological function of survival!

Many other individuals have “imbalances of personality” enabling them to use and channel the relate behavioral tendencies in socially acceptable activities (sublimation) functional to the fitting and they are successful in specific areas. Think on the “Histrionic”, in the entertainment world, or on the “Narcissist”, in the fashion world: if they don’t have other skills can have difficulties in other activities.

We could say with the past President of Italian Republic in 1980 Sandro Pertini: “All men of character have a bad character!”. His phrase sums up the energy that the “unbalced personalities” bring into the activities to which are instinctively predisposed and the personal difficulties they often have outside it.

Even the tendencie to group life characterize the “normal” human beings, particularly the “Hypersociable”. We can say: “Man is a social animal”. This is certainly a behavioral function of survival, because the group life increases the possibilities of survival. It’s more evident that this could be another biological function of survival, if you consider it’s common across to most animals, except a few. The same applies to the conduct intended to deceive or a charm in various measures and ways in all human beings, particularly in the “Histrionics”, in order to attract attention and be socially accepted and loved. Likely, it is finalized to survive also if you consider it’s related to biological tendencies to performing the personality according to those of other people. This is an instinctive strategy of survival common to many breeds of animals, although usually its purpose is only the sexual coupling or submission to the leader of the pack. In the human beings it’s transformed in purposes of social integration indirectly functional to the survival. Similar considerations can be done to narcissism existing in various ways and measures in every human beings. It keeps the spirits high and his injury leads to frustration and subjective reactions. The author doesn’t knows which animals have this developed instinct. He believes it could be connected to a biological funcion of survival, because a good image of itself carries a high tone and mood and it motivates to continue to engage in the struggle for survival.

Referring and to more than the Darwinian concept of “survival of the fittest”, Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess (in Development and temperament, New York, Brunner-Mazel,1977) proposed the concept of “goodness of fit”. According to them, the success or failure of fitting doesn’t depends so much on the skills or on characteristics of individual to interact with the environment rather on as required by the characteristics of ecosystem interweaving with those of the individual phenotype. Because of this, according to them and to the author of this work, the approach to the human behaviour must be centred on the individual-in-context.

This psychological study was published briefly at the 11th European Congress of Psychologists (ECP 2009) which was held in Oslo, Norway, in July 2009, and entirely in Italy.



1) Tink on the wonderful lands of South Italy; the beautiful landscapes and supra-Saharan climate; in strategic position for trade and tourism in Mediterranean Sea; rich in  history, archaeology and art; habited by people accustomed to sacrifices and hard work; but with high indices of ignorance, inefficiency of public services, crime, social disorganization, poverty, filth, stray animals, etc. etc.

Along with some centres of excellence in Health, research, trade or tourism and some of prominent individuality in literature, politic, entertainment and science, there is a large situation of backwardness and deprivation which can be summarized in the survey done in 2008 by the Journal “Il Sole 24 Ore” on the quality of life in Italy: 26 seats of the last 35 of the ranking of 103 Italian provinces was occupied by southern.

This one happens because of various reasons. The main ones are probably the following.

A) Factions of organizations mafia (‘Mafia’, in Sicily; ‘Sacra Corona United’, in Puglia; ‘Ndrangheta’, in Calabria; ‘Camorra’, in Campania, etc.), in the violent struggle between them, for money, and political (parties) in electoral competition, for power, are often in a wicked synergy. Political power and crime are everywhere in the world. There they have an aim to make a system and pose them as an alternative to the Italian State (I. S.) and its law, through many various collusion between mafia and some politicians, public administrators, people and private entrepreneurs who plunder the public properties with the complicity of local inspectors very corrupt accomplices instead of monitoring seriously the public works. Because of this the Minster has made capturing more mafia and confiscate more property them, in the first year of his activity, was R. Maroni of the “North League”.

B) Many corrupt commissioners of competitions, servants of politicians and/or mafia, select the candidates for placement in public services in illegal wais, not based on their professional skills or on honesty, but on their loyalty to the factions and their bosses who want them in those places for exchange of electoral votes or other favours (the most refined criminals of the P. A. called them “dedicated competitions”), with the consequent obvious widespread inefficiency of public services.

C) A large proportion of the population justifies with the “need for a job” his support for politicians, although there is a widespread belief in the failure of most of them, so even for the mafia. The blackmail employment leads many to accept not secured exploited activities of work, to thank for the job and for what expected by right or skill and to continue follow the ancient sociocultural criteria of landowners that lead to conceive a servile submissions to employers-owners (old subject-culture). But only a part of these attitudes may be attributed to the endemic low levels of employment in the region. In fact, for about 60 years, the I. S. has done for the South a welfare political through the creation of a lot of secure and warranted public jobs that many employees has used to their own purposes or faction (fake documents in public, boycotts, peculation, “shirking”, corruption, concussion, undue appropriations), not in a spirit of service at people, even if they are free from blackmail employments. F. ex. after the “cure of Minster Renato Brunetta” of absenteeism because of false illness in the P. A., the Department of Italian Civil Service has detected a decrease of 43.9% (false sick) in the South: f. ex., 76.1%, at the Zoo of Palermo; 87,3%, in the municipality of Canicattini (Syracuse); 82%, in A.U. S.L. of Caltanissetta and, 90.5%, in the town of Casal of Prince (Campania) where it was shot “Gomorra”, the famous film! Even many northern entrepreneurs have created industries and jobs in the South, but has leaved the area after mafia extortion, threats and murders!

D) For about 60 years the I.S. has also funded several projects for economic and cultural development, which were funded part. by most productive Northern Regions. It was a very opportunity for the South and a reward-duty for peoples who, despite the poverty, first, helped the Italy to defend its northern borders in the trenches of the First World War; second, supported the economy of many Western countries where they has emigrated abroad; third, most recently supported the “Italian economic boom” of the sixties, part. with unskilled workers. But, because of wilfully or incapacity, most of the politicians and public administrators have largely squandered or poorly used such opportunities. F. ex., you may think on the many waste in Health, on the many “interminable” public works as much roads and hospitals, on the funds of U. E. reverted back because of not having known the use, on the “relatives-town” in many southern University and Regions, on the roads-sieve whenever it rains more than usual and in spit of it rain very less than in North Italy, on the no-reconstruction of Belice (Sicily) after the earthquake of 1968 (sic!) compared with the reconstruction of Friuli in two years only, etc. In spite of this the majority of people during the first 60 years of Italian Republic voted for the same politicians, faithful to the popular saying: “Migliu lu tintu canusciutu ca lu bunu a veniri” (“What is known even if bad is better than the unknown to experiment!”).

Mafia and most politicians and public administrators has developed skills to speculate about the funding of I. S. and U. E. to their particular or client purposes, not to plan a general and lasting cultural, social and economic development of the South. They set a bad example and even most people have developed skills to live by gimmicks.

E) Some ideate or exhibit the exploitation of public jobs and funding and even the disrespect for the laws of I. S. because of “they are coming from a foreign power” and “therefore they are unlawful”. After the Greeks, Romans, Byzantines and Arabs made the South the “cradle of European civilization” their hostility is stemming from the one towards the foreign powers occupied in antiquities those lands to the main purpose exploit them, except a few exceptions such as f. ex. Frederick II of Swabia, until the politicians of the twentieth century who mal ruled.

F) All this is associated with the historical culture of small traders or artisans or land-owners of many southern people leading them to plan individualistic activities with a limited visual, not associative, cooperative or entrepreneurship, essential to success in the modern society and economy.

G) Many complain about the situation but don’t do their duty. Some accuse the politicians. But in a low voice because of fear of being heard and to suffer retaliation. Few accuse the mafia. But don’t talk to anyone because of fear or even suffer the harassment. In a apparent incoherent way many people will turn to politicians or mafia for protection or complain about the lack of order and justice it seems they wont only for others, keeping for themselves the freedom of action! Many people complain but few rebel. Some are able to organize protest marches or to destroy a neighbourhood because of a arbitrage unfavourable to the football team of the heart but not against the public corruption and inefficiency nor are turning to the judges. Indeed, they strive to obtain what they want (part., jobs and funding) not by law or merit but by secret protections of some mafia or politicians. In fact, after the first Burlusconi government made not penal the offense of false accounting and since then in Italy have greatly increased the offenses of fraud committed by politicians an public administrators, the people on the streets and bars of South Italy loudly shouting against politicians ‘corrupts’, ‘thieves’, ‘profiteers’, who ‘should go to jail’! But despait, for example, the Major of Salerno City Vincenzo De Luca, Leoluca Orlando of Palermo and Luigi De Magistris of Naples, the Presidente of Puglia Region Niki Vendola and of Sicily Rosario Crocetta, ruled exactly as people said (making public services more efficient, halving the salaries of parliamentarians and decraising the number of themselves and their offices), the last politic election in 2013, in the secrecy of the ballot boxes where no one saw them, the majority of people continued to vote for parties of power, including thoose linked to criminals, with the obvious intention of exchanging their votes with favors against the collettive interests and even against the interests of their friends! Even the magistrate Antonio Ingroia who founded his entire politic campaign against mafia and corruption and should have been elected in a plebiscite has not been elected at all! The new Party of Mario Monti, the technician who ruled Italy with rigor and attention to the general accounts of the Italian State rather than to individual and family needs and human resources of many citizen who, in consequence, have worsened their social situations, despite the appreciations he got from other European Governments, won only 10% of the votes of Italians. ‘Most of the words of the violent is afraid the silence of honest’, said Martin Luther King. Of course, since the politicians in power had not been able to trade favors with votes as before governments, a part of the people consisting mainly of youngs has understood that and, seeing no hope, he began to give his votes of protest to a social and political movement revolutionary than the traditional Italian political system of parties: the ‘Five Stars’ of Beppe Grillo. It happened something similar to young people have led the recent ‘Arab Spring’, for the communication tools like social networks, and to young people of the 60s and 70s in the Western World, for the type of dispute!

H) Once, in the South, the respect for the people was substantial even for the weakest; now it’s predominantly exterior or consists of a fearful reverence to powerful and almost all are trying to get others to their purposes!

In summary, many southern rather than use the funding and the jobs made available to them for community, learn “how” create on site long-lasting productive, educational and social structures capable of self producing welfare, richness and social development, developed a little sense of citizenship and a lacking culture of public responsibility, preferred make smarts and life by annuity so maintaining high the self-esteem and conceiving itself as “the best” (the semi-gods, according to Tomasi of Lampedusa on his “The tiger-cat”), unaware of their cultural limits and of their personal responsibilities.

The majority is fitted or resigned to an illegal system of social relations and personal interests or factions now, mediated mainly by mafia or politicians. The awareness that to everyone can derive immediate personal benefits from this deviant system and that everyone can suffers more damage from the same acting of other people is widespread. But the cares of the common interests and the need to be governed by the common laws, not by the egoism, whims or interests of single citizens or factions is poor. Something similar happens to the many minors who drive motorcycles bold without helmets and to many adults who drive cars without using seat belts: stupidly they don’t realize do so at their own detriment. They don’t realize the law tends to respect the general interest; the illegality however meet only the interests of more powerful or violent!

In this situation, a minority of able and honest people, public officials and politicians finds very difficult to operate and is opposed or, some times, laughed at the personal or professional plans. “In order for evil triumphs just good to give up”, said Edmund Burke, since leaving the space for operating to the dishonest!

Therefore, the statistic normality is adapt themselves to these ways of thinking and acting; the functional normality is oppose resilience to it!

2) R.R. Holt – Individuality and generalization in the psychology of personality (1962). Bulletin of Applied Psychology, 1963, 57/58: 3-24; Internet edition, updated to 1998: http://www.publinet.it/ pol/ital/documig6.htm].

3) Henry Ey – Treaty of psychiatry – Milano, Masson, 1971.

This work was published, in summary, in the XI European Congress of Psychology which was held in Oslo (Norway) in 2009 and, in full, in Italy.

Syracuse, (Italy), 01-07-2009 D.r Salvatore Cammarata

Ultimo aggiornamento (Mercoledì 19 Giugno 2013 10:49)

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